Orthodox holidays

How is the merry Russian Maslenitsa celebrated in Russia on the days of the week? Traditions and ceremonies of the Shrovetide festival: burning a scarecrow, a wheel, a bear, mummers, fist fights

Shrovetide is a holiday that allows you to say goodbye to the burden of past grievances and start life from a blank page.

The oil week is filled with warm family traditions, fun festivities, congratulations and delicious pancakes. This is what the article tells.

Shrovetide symbols

Shrovetide is a vivid example of the interweaving of pagan and Christian traditions. The holiday began with pagan festivities in honor of the Slavic god Yaril and the wise god Veles. The symbols of Shrovetide have pagan roots.

Pancake week - pancake festival

In pre-Christian Russia, pancakes were considered sacrificial bread and were donated to pagan gods.

There is a hypothesis that the pancake’s forerunner was oatmeal, which was unsuccessfully heated over a fire and received sintered thin cake. Over time, pancakes began to be prepared from wheat, rye, buckwheat flour.

IMPORTANT: It was believed that pancakes should be eaten only with your hands. If you cut them with a knife or prick with a fork - you can call trouble into the house. That is why many of us eat pancakes with folded envelopes or rolled up a straw.

Historical fact: Pancakes became the main treat of Masliany only in the 19th century.

Burning a scarecrow on Shrovetide

Another iconic image of Shrovetide is the stuffed straw of Marena. Marena is one of the most powerful goddesses in the Slavic pantheon. It was she who was subject to winter, death, night.

The destruction of Scarecrow-Marena ensured an early arrival of heat, a good harvest, protection from any disaster for the entire community, and early weddings for young people.

In the oil tradition, Marena is greeted as a dear guest at the beginning of the festive week. That is why pancake Monday is called "Meeting." At the end of the week, a straw doll is burned at the stake. According to ethnographers, Morena in this case acts as a messenger to the higher powers. Its main purpose is to convey to the gods the wishes and hopes of the community.

Bear and Mummers at Shrovetide: photo

Mummers in bear skins are an indispensable attribute of all oil festivities. But few people know that their appearance is also due to the Gentiles. On the day of the solstice, the Slavs worshiped the god Veles, mainly a bear.

In ancient Slavic language the bear was designated by the word "com". The holiday dedicated to Veles was called "Komoyeditsy".

It was the pre-Christian "Komoyeditsa" that reincarnated as Cheese Week (Shrovetide).

Shrovetide wheel - a symbol of the holiday

The brightly decorated wheel on Shrovetide is a solar symbol, because the Slavs represented the sun in the form of a wheel rolling around the horizon. That is why one of the most popular ritual amusements on the butter week was the tradition of rolling lightened wheels along the roads.

In addition, a wheel decorated with ribbons was attached to a pole and worn through the streets during holiday processions. Around the pillar with a wheel were dancing.

How to celebrate the meeting of Shrovetide?

The entire Cheese Week consisted of many ceremonies, games, ritual activities. All of them were sorted according to the calendar days of the week. Every day Maslyanoy had his own rules and traditions.

Narrow Shrovetide: Monday - Matchmaking Day

Meeting day

We met the straw effigy of Marena-Maslenitsa:

Hello, Maslenitsa annual,
Our guest is dear!
Come to us on the black horses,
Yes, on the sledges of the fast painted.
For the sledges to be young,
We would bring gifts dear:
And pancakes, and pancakes, and kalach,
To our stove and the window of their swords!
Are you my soul, Maslenitsa,

Quail bones,
Your straw body
Sugar your mouth
Sweet is your speech!
Come visit us in the wide courtyard,
Ride on the mountains, roll in pancakes,
Heart out!
Come out, people, to a great miracle,
Meet Shrovetide, they will lead her to us!

Shrove Monday was also the day of the matchmakers' meeting. Families discussed plans for the holidays, made a menu, lists of invited guests.

By the beginning of the week, they tried to finish the design of booths, swings, snow slides and fortresses, ice rinks, and began to bake pancakes.

Who is the first pancake for Shrovetide dedicated to?

The first pancake on Maslenitsa was always given to the poor so that they remembered the deceased relatives. This tradition is also rooted in pagan times: the first pancake on the holiday of Komoeditsa, the present Maslenitsa, was given to comas (bears).

That is why we still say: “The first pancake is coms” (and not coms, as many of us are sure).

Narrow Shrovetide: Tuesday - Brides of the Bride

Flirtation Day or Smotrin Day

On this day, it was customary to carry out the old Russian rite of bride to the bride. If everything went well, the wedding was planned for the first after Easter Sunday, popularly referred to as "Red Hill".

Young people, free from the bride, went to have fun, since all the planned public festivals and fairs began on Tuesday.

Narrow Shrovetide: Wednesday - pancakes for son-in-law

Gourmet Day

On this day, the mother-in-law personally prepared pancakes for the son-in-law.

The houses were open to guests.

Theaters appeared on city streets and squares. In the stalls, you could enjoy red-hot nuts, honey gingerbread, and drink sbitn.

Wide Shrovetide: Thursday - Carol

Day revelry, Kolyada

From this day until Monday, all household work was stopped.

The time began for fun, trips, noisy feasts, competitions.

Necessarily in the program of festivities was an assault on a snow fortress, jumping over fire.

Fisticuffs at Shrovetide

It was on a pancake day-revelry that famous fist fights or fists were held.

Even with the general fun fights were conducted according to strict rules:
• do not take stones, sticks;
• Do not beat the speed bump;
• you can’t beat two of one;
• Do not hit the back of the head, liver, or kidneys.

As the fist participants themselves jokingly said, fights were needed in order to knock out pancakes from the enemy. Fists began in the early morning and continued until late in the evening.

By and large, both the capture of the fortress and fist fights personified the struggle of cold and heat.

Carols for Shrovetide: words

Christmas carols belong to the congratulatory songs of the winter cycle.

In the Russian tradition, it was not customary to refuse those who congratulate the owners on Broad Maslena and ask for permission to make a carriage.

The singers were generously rewarded with pancakes and other goodies, they were always given a sip of wine.

How the carollers were going,
Grapes, my red-green!
Carollers, all factory workers,
We were looking for our master’s court,
Mr. gentlemen’s yard at seven miles
At seven miles, eight pillars.
In the middle of the courtyard, in the middle of the wide,
There are three towers
Three towers are golden-domed.
In the first tower, the sun is red,
In the second tower, stars are frequent,
The master himself in the house, master in the tower,
Mistress in the house, mistress in high,
Mladas girls in the house, like nuts in honey,
Grapes, my red-green!
Thank the owner
On bread, on salt and salary.
Grapes, my red-green!
He fed, watered, let him out of the yard,
Grapes, my red-green!

Ditties to Shrovetide: words

None of the festivities in Russia was complete without ditties - short, fun songs that give an emotional assessment of the events.

Come in come in
On rosy pancakes.
Today Maslen is a week -
Be happy like us!

I'm ready for Maslen
Eat 50 pancakes.
I'll bake them with baking,
I'll try to lose weight

Bake, godfather, pancakes,
Yes, so that were magnificent.
Today Maslen is a week -
You can eat too much.

Martians flew in
Their plates are not empty
And full of pancakes.

I ate the fifth pancake,
The skirt burst on me.
I'm going to sew a skirt,
To eat pancakes again.

Have fun, harmonica,
Shrovetide, do not be sad!
Come spring soon
Drive the winter away from us!

We stop singing ditties
Until another evening.
You sit till morning
If there is nothing to do.

Video: Ditties at Shrovetide

What costumes were prepared for Shrovetide?

A common European tradition of celebrating Shrovetide was dressing (dressing).

For Russia, ritual dressing is another echo of the pagan Komoeditsa. In pagan celebrations there was always a ceremony of dressing in the skins of totem animals of the community.

For Pancake week rounds, the following characters are considered traditional mummers:

  • elders (sometimes dead)
  • beggars, devils, buffoons
  • young or pregnant
  • bear, goat, cow
  • crane, duck, chicken, goose, etc.

In the evening, after ritual rounds, the mummers burned small elements of costumes and necessarily passed the church rite of purification.

Wide Shrovetide: Friday - Mother-in-law's evenings

Mother-in-law's Day

On this day, the son-in-law received the guests.

Yes on mother-in-law, the evenings on the tables are rich
Mother-in-law's invitations are expected from beloved sons-in-law.
Yes, in the morning and in the early
Come with invitations - these are the touts.

With low bows, with spring songs
The mother-in-law is called to the sons-in-law and for refreshments.
Oh yes Springtime, you bring fun
Well, mother-in-law and sons-in-law for a year reconciliation.

Wide Shrovetide: Saturday - Zolovkin Day

Zolovkin day

On this day, a young daughter-in-law took her husband's sister (sister-in-law) as the mistress of the house.

If the sister-in-law was a married woman, then married couples from the side of the daughter-in-law were invited to visit. If the sister-in-law is a girl, then the daughter-in-law could call her unmarried friends into the house.

Surely on this day the daughter-in-law presented the sister-in-law a gift.

Wide Shrovetide: Sunday - Forgiveness Sunday

Day-farewell, Forgiveness Sunday

On this day, festivities reach their peak: in addition to the main entertainment, fairs and theater performances are held.

Video: Maslyana Maslenitsa. Seeing off winter

Rites on Maslenitsa

  • Skiing from the mountains. The descent from a high hill imitated the mediation between the two worlds. It was believed that the longer the descent, the higher the yield would rise.
  • Sledging, skating in a circle, driving round dances helped the sun warm up. The movement must have started from left to right (in the sun).
  • Ritual fights (fist taking snow fortresses).
  • Pillars or popular kissing of newly married couples.
  • First pancake sometimes put at night near the dormer window. It was believed that his deceased relatives would eat him.
  • Last damn put in the hand of a straw effigy Morena-Pancake week.

Pancake week omen: If you eat peas on Wednesday, and pancakes on Thursday, then the money will be in the house all year round.

Shrovetide events: Shrovetide wedding

Shrovetide wedding was considered a very good sign. Marriage in Cheese Week provided the young family with prosperity for life. In such cases it was said that life would be like clockwork.

The whole Maslenitsa week is permeated with rituals and traditions, the main purpose of which is to unite the family and bring prosperity to the house.

Accordingly, Shrovetide was and remains the best time to create new family ties.

Shrovetide Fairs

Shrovetide fairs were held on a special scale. By and large, all the festivities on the Cheese Week took place outside the houses. They only went into the room to warm themselves.

Therefore, fairs, especially the big Sunday, became a necessity: here you could have a bite to eat, warm yourself with tea, buy small gifts and souvenirs for relatives.

Theatrical performance at Shrovetide

The biggest pageant ending the Broad Maslenitsa was the burning of the scarecrow of the Morena Maslenitsa. This is an amazing rite through which a person tried to come closer to understanding the mysteries of death and resurrection. Now the sacred filling of this rite has practically disappeared. Only gaiety and theatrical surroundings remained.

VIDEO: Maslyana Maslenitsa. Scarecrow burning

After burning the effigies, the ashes were scattered over the fields, buried in the gardens. People believed that he had the magical power to protect crops from the last frost.

Sunday evening ceased all amusements. Everyone said goodbye, that is, they asked each other for forgiveness.

How is the last day of Shrovetide celebrated?

In addition to the pagan traditions of the celebration of Shrovetide, an important place on the last pancake day was occupied by Christian traditions. After all, the next week began Lent, for which it was necessary to prepare.

It was necessary to clear the soul of the burden of resentment. After a traditional kiss at parting and a low bow, they exchanged words:

“Forgive me, perhaps, if you are to blame for what!”
- God will forgive! And I forgive! And forgive me!

According to tradition in families, they began to ask for forgiveness from the eldest in the family. Godchildren must have visited their godfather and mother.

On Sunday evening, the houses were carefully cleaned, the dishes were washed, the remaining food was thrown away.

Mandatory was going to the bath to cleanse the body.

Video: Forgiveness Sunday. How to forgive old grievances

Shrovetide menu: dishes on Shrovetide

Shrovetide menu suggested the rejection of meat dishes. That is why in the church calendars Shrovetide is often called the Meat and Cheese Week.

It was quite justified. During the Pancake Day celebration, cows began to milk, and dairy products were plentiful. In anticipation of a long fast, slaughtering pets for meat was impractical.

In addition, the body had to be prepared for a smooth transition to a lean table. Refusal of meat with preservation of fish and dairy menus made it possible to go to the post as smoothly as possible.

Traditional dishes of the Shrovetide menu were: pancakes, dumplings, cheesecakes, all kinds of pies and pies, gingerbread cookies. Abundantly served fish, vegetables, mushrooms. Sbiten was very popular as a drink.

Pancake week - we cook and bake pancakes: cooking secrets

Each housewife had her own generation-proven pancake recipe. The recipe has never been shared. It was believed that the loss of a family pancake recipe would bring misfortune.

Finding your most delicious recipe is easy enough now. But cooking rules in recipes are often not prescribed.

Some simple secrets will help make pancakes really tasty:

  1. The liquid in the pancake dough should be added hot. This will increase the stickiness of the flour.
  2. The sifted flour should stand a little. Do not add it to the dough immediately
  3. Salt and sugar are added strictly according to the recipe. Over-salted dough wanders poorly, the pancake will turn pale. From an excess of sugar, the pancake will become hard
  4. If the flour for the test is diluted with salt water, there will be no lumps in the test
  5. Whipped egg whites are introduced into the dough after it is suitable. You need to mix the proteins from top to bottom, and not in a circle, otherwise the dough will settle
  6. Buckwheat flour for pancakes should be dry, fresh, without black dots and a musty smell
  7. Pancakes are best baked in small thick-walled pans
  8. The preheated pan is first sprinkled with salt, wiped with a napkin and only after this is smeared with vegetable oil for frying
  9. Pour the dough into a well-heated pan.
  10. Pancakes are fried over high heat.

Video: Pancakes from Alexander Seleznev

Video: Pancake cake by Alexander Seleznev

How cooked dough for pancakes at Shrovetide?

IMPORTANT: Pancakes need only live yeast.

Dough Recipe: Dilute 50 g of live yeast with 2 cups of warm water. Add 0.5 kg of flour (buckwheat, wheat, rye). Mix well and put in a warm place to rise.

Pancake Recipe for Shrovetide

Add to the finished dough

• 0.5 kg of flour (it is better to use the one on which the dough was planted),
• 3 tablespoons of melted butter,
• 2 tablespoons of granulated sugar,
• 4 - 5 eggs (yolks are added first; after raising the dough - beaten squirrels),
• a pinch of salt,
• 4 to 5 cups of warm milk.

Tip: Milk should be infused gradually, controlling the density of the dough. The consistency dough should resemble kefir.

IMPORTANT: Before baking, the dough should come up three times!

We bake pancakes in a well-heated pan, pre-greased with vegetable oil.

Tip: when lubricating the pan with butter, the pancake may burn.

SMS Congratulations on Maslenitsa

Congratulations on Shrovetide.,
Have fun, rejoice people!
We wish the sun joy
Celebrate the coming of spring!
Let with rosy pancakes
Happiness will knock on your house
Kalachami, pies
The table will generously reward you!

SMS greetings with Shrovetide

Meet Shrovetide with a song
Be open and kind.
And your world will become more interesting
And the pancakes will be delicious.
We wish you a lot of fun
Breath of sunny spring
May the days be full of happiness!

SMS greetings with Shrovetide

With a reckless Shrovetide, the sun
We hasten to congratulate you, friends.
Let the heart beat joyfully
The whole earth meets spring!
Bake to her arrival
Pancakes rosy, pretzels.
Invite friends and relatives
To celebrate the holiday more fun!

SMS greetings with Shrovetide

Congratulations on Shrovetide,
We wish great changes.
May spring bring you
A lot of light and heat!
Have fun, life is beautiful!
May good rule!
Well, we wish you happiness
And so that you are lucky in everything!

SMS greetings with Shrovetide

Let the three daredevil
Spring will burst into your life
Sun ray golden
Happiness in the heart will respond.
Throw a feast on the mountain
And you bake pancakes.
And say goodbye to us in the winter
Welcome to visit with pleasure!

And openwork, and beautiful,
And blush and tasty
In Shrovetide, everyone is amazed
Pancakes come out.
We wish you fun.
A joke of laughter and kindness
Mischievous mood
Sun, light and heat!

SMS greetings with Shrovetide

With meat, cottage cheese, mushrooms -
How delicious pancakes are!
This is Shrovetide with us
Seeing off the days of winter.
With a song, jokes, fun
Call, people, spring!
And with a good mood
Eat each pancake!

SMS greetings with Shrovetide

Happy Maslenitsa
Pies and donuts
The hour is coming
There can be no pancakes
Winter wires
Celebrate with songs
We invite you!

SMS greetings with Shrovetide

Congratulations on Shrovetide.
We invite you to celebrate the holiday:
All the worries you drop
We are waiting for you today!
Treat you cakes
And lush pancakes
February wave our hand,
Let's say Martha together.

SMS greetings with Shrovetide

I'm at Shrovetide you
I wish you joy
May it be rewarded on business
And do not know sorrows!
Let everythnig will be alright,
It will come true that is necessary.
A miracle holiday has come to us,
Celebrate together!

SMS greetings with Shrovetide

Congratulations on Shrovetide!
I wish you warmth
And make life happy
And it was joyful!
May happiness come to you
How warm the spring is
And be with you
Joy and fun!

Watch the video: Russian factory workers greet spring MASLENITSA holiday (November 2019).